What investigations may help prognosticate mortality in pulmonary embolism?
- Troponins: This is a sensitive and specific biomarker for irreversible myocardial injury. Increased levels have been associated with increased short term mortality risk in acute PE.
- NT pro-BNP: BNP shows correlation with right ventricular (RV) dysfunction in acute PE and is also associated with increased short term mortality.
- Lactate: Plasma levels > 2mmol/L can predict PE related complications in high risk patients.
- Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE): Findings of RV overload and dysfunction have been associated with increased short term mortality and PE-related complications. If accompanied with low cardiac output state, acute RV failure is the leading cause of death in patients with massive PE.