What are the common causes of secondary hypertension?
Presentation commonly in those <18 years old:
- Coarctation of the aorta
- Congenital renal parenchymal disease e.g. Polycystic Kidney Disease
- Genetic syndromes e.g. Liddle syndrome, 11β-dehydrogenase deficiency
Presentation most common in those 19-40 years old:
- Renal artery stenosis secondary to fibromuscular dysplasia (especially women)
- Medications e.g. stimulants (amphetamine, cocaine), nasal decongestants (phenylephrine), OCP, diet pills
Presentation most common in those >40 years old:
- Phaeochromocytoma (possibly in conjunction with neurofibromatosis, MEN2a /2b or Von-Hippel Lindau syndrome)
- Obstructive sleep apnoea
- Cushing’s syndrome
- Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis
- Acquired renal parenchymal disease e.g. diabetes, glomerulonephritis etc.
- Conn’s disease (primary hyperaldosteronism)